How to Publish
Find all information on how to submit and publish your paper.
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Technical Instructions for the Preparation of Manuscripts
Every journal homepage contains a 'Guidelines for Authors' section with detailed requirements to be followed when preparing your manuscript.
Follow the general technical instructions for preparation of manuscripts and figures.
- Do not use any special page layout.
- Submit your text, tables, and illustrations as separate files.
- Your text should be entered continuously flush left. Do not use hard returns ('enter') within a paragraph. Use a hard return only to mark the end of a paragraph.
- Do not justify text.
- Do not use header and footer functions.
- Do not split words at the end of a line.
- Do not indent text anywhere in your manuscript or in the references.
- Use the automatic line numbering and page numbering functions.
- Headings should be aligned flush left. Do not center them, space them or write them in uppercase letters.
- Headings of the same ranking should appear uniformly throughout the text.
- Use italics as well as sub- and superscript letters/numbers where appropriate. (Do not use superscript numbers for references.)
- Use uppercase letters only for abbreviations. Do not space individual words for emphasis.
- Make a distinction between hyphens and dashes as follows:
hyphen: e.g. high-resolution screen
dash: e.g. 20112013, the incident as responses showed was perceived...
minus sign: e.g. at a temperature of -75°C
- Use your word-processing program to insert Greek letters, mathematical symbols, etc.
- Must be prepared in WORD
- PDF or EXCEL files are not accepted
- Must be prepared as separate files; do not integrate tables in the main text
- Components: heading, head and body and, if necessary, footnotes; use a line to separate these parts see examples:
Example 1 (DOC, 15KB)
Example 2 (DOC, 23KB)
Example 3 (DOC, 14KB)
- Do not use spaces; use the tabulator
- Submit original data, especially for line art, if possible.
- Please submit your images in one of the following formats:
- pixel file: psd, tif, jpg, png, bmp, pdf
- vector file: eps, ai, ppt, pdf
- Must be prepared as separate files; do not integrate figures in the manuscript (WORD file).
- Do not use WORD files for halftone images.
- Maximum file size: 25 MB.
- Authors wishing to provide LaTEX files are to contact the Editorial Office prior to submission.
The illustrations in the published work will correspond to the quality of the figures provided.
Depiction of Humans in Images
- The inclusion of an image of a person must comply with our Ethics guidelines as described in the Editorial and Journal policies, please see the journal guidelines for more information.
- It is the author’s responsibility to obtain written informed consent to publish the image from the individual(s) or their guardian/next of kin. In the manuscript, authors must include a statement detailing that consent for publication was obtained and from whom. This should be included after the main body of the text, but before the reference list.
Reproduction of Third-Party Images/Materials
- It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that third-party material reproduced in their manuscript is compliant with any applicable copyright license.
- It is the authors’ responsibility to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reuse the material(s), including the payment of any associated licensing fee.
- Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
- Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts as editable text.
- All lines should be at least 0.15 mm (0.4 pt) wide.
- If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
- The resolution of halftones should be as high as possible and in proportion to the size of the figure (usually a minimum resolution of 300 dpi after scaling is required).
Combination Halftones/Line Arts
- The resolution of combined illustrations should be as high as possible and in proportion to the size of the figure (usually a minimum resolution of 600 dpi after scaling is required).
- Combined illustrations with fonts must have the fonts as editable text.
Flowcharts, Forest Plots, and Combined Tables/Illustrations
- Must be prepared as editable text.
- Preferred formats: ai, WORD, ppt, pdf (no EXCEL).
- Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB.
- Use Arial or Segoe UI (sans serif fonts) if possible.
- Use consistent sizing of lettering throughout the image (7–11 pt).
- Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 7-pt type on an axis and 11-pt type for the axis label.
- Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
- Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.
- Figure parts should be denoted by bold lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
- The figures should be between 57 and 180 mm wide and not higher than 223 mm at final size (after scaling).