Community Voice

Digital Biomarkers

Author Guidelines

About the Journal

Aims and Scope

Digital biomarkers are defined as objective, quantifiable physiological and behavioral data that are collected and measured by means of digital devices such as portables, wearables, implantables, or digestibles. The data collected are typically used to explain, influence, and/or predict health-related outcomes. Digital biomarkers also represent an opportunity to capture clinically meaningful, objective data. Multidisciplinary by design, this innovative open-access journal bridges the disciplines of computer science, engineering, biomedicine, regulatory science, and informatics. The editorial board includes leaders from academia, life sciences, technology, and government, thus reflecting the broad scope of the journal. Papers are published within 60 days of submission, and the inclusion of videos or other visual materials is supported. Moreover, Digital Biomarkers provides and supports access to data, algorithms, and app repositories linked to the articles published in the journal.

Journal Sections

Research Reports
Research reports are research articles or brief reports that report on the authors' use or development of this new class of tools. Reports of early experience in clinical trials (e.g., numbers enrolled, barriers to use, principal findings, or suggestions for the future) would be especially valuable.

Tools and Devices
Reviews or Technical Notes looking at wearable sensors or similar devices within a particular field (e.g., neurology, infectious disease) or for a particular function (e.g., to measure sleep, activity, facilitate diagnosis).

Viewpoints
Viewpoint articles are reviews on different perspectives on the effectiveness of digital biomarkers to objectively measure health through the use of algorithms to interpreted data into meaningful outcomes; biosensors' strengths, limitations, and current and future applications.

Network of Digital Evidence (NODE)
Papers submitted to this section can be reviews, case reports (focusing on digital medicine), and research articles (e.g. multi-site trials).

Interviews
Interviews with selected individuals from the digital biomarkers field are on a solicited basis. Unsolicited suggestions are welcome. Please send a short description of the interview to our Editorial Office.

Technical Notes
These manuscripts present a new method, experimental model, test procedure, tool, or algorithm that is relevant for the research and significantly advances current available knowledge. They should not be more than 1,500 words, with approx. 10 references, and 2 figures and/or tables and should be submitted under the 'Other Types' article type.

Validation
Validation articles are research articles that report on a technology, product or service in comparison to a clinical standard or reference. For example, a validation report may describe how an activity tracker captures step count compared to the observed step count.

Health Measure
Health Measure articles are research articles that report on the clinical effectiveness of a technology, product or service. They may also report on the use of digital biomarkers for clinical effectiveness investigation that focuses on outcomes, cost, or care access. For example, the deployment of an activity tracker may prevent the development of diabetes mellitus type II in targeted populations. 

Article Types

Research Article

Research Articles report on primary research. They must describe significant and original observations. Consideration for publication is based on the article’s originality, novelty, and scientific soundness, and the appropriateness of its analysis.
Research Articles are reports of original work. Authors are asked to follow the EQUATOR Network for Research Articles.
Prior approval from an Institutional Review Board (IRB) or an Ethics Review Committee is required for all investigations involving human subjects.

A downloadable template is available below.
Documents

Research Article (DOCX, 28.97 KB)

Research Articles should not exceed 3,000 words, excluding up to 6 tables or figures and up to 40 references. A statement in the manuscript text regarding Institutional Review Board or appropriate Ethics Board review and approval needs to be provided.

Authors may wish to submit the following type of Research Articles:

Research Reports
Research reports are research articles that report on the authors' use or development of this new class of tools. Reports of early experience in clinical trials (e.g., numbers enrolled, barriers to use, principal findings, or suggestions for the future) would be especially valuable.

Validation 

Validation articles are research articles that report on a technology, product or service in comparison to a clinical standard or reference. For example, a validation report may describe how an activity tracker captures step count compared to the observed step count.

Health Measure

Health Measure articles are research articles that report on the clinical effectiveness of a technology, product or service. They may also report on the use of digital biomarkers for clinical effectiveness investigation that focuses on outcomes, cost, or care access. For example, the deployment of an activity tracker may prevent the development of diabetes mellitus type II in targeted populations.

Review Article

Review Articles are considered reviews of research or summary articles. They are state-of-the-art papers covering a current topic by experts in the field. They should give evidence on and provide answers to a well-defined aspect or question in a particular area. Review Articles must include a critical discussion of the reported data and give a clear conclusion with potential impacts on the standard of care.

A downloadable template is available below.

Documents

Review Article (DOCX, 23.66 KB)

Review Articles should not exceed 3,500 words, excluding up to 6 tables or figures and up to 60 references.

Systematic Review

Systematic Reviews are literature reviews focused on a research question that synthesizes all high-quality research evidence relevant to that question. Systematic Reviews should be presented in the Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion format. The subject must be clearly defined. The objective of a Systematic Review should be to arrive at an evidence-based conclusion. The Methods section should give a clear indication of the literature search strategy, data extraction procedure, grading of evidence, and kind of analysis used. We strongly encourage authors to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

A downloadable template is available below.

Documents

Systematic Review (DOCX, 27.84 KB)

Systematic Reviews should not exceed 3,000 words, excluding up to 6 tables or figures and up to 40 references.

Case Report

Case Reports can present a case study, case report, or other description of a case. Case Reports present significant new insights or cases with an unusual and noteworthy course. Submissions can be based on a case or a number of similar cases. The most important aspect of the presentation is that it should provide a new perspective on a recognized clinical scenario or may represent an entirely new clinical condition. The novelty of the case(s) may lie in the phenotype, the presentation, the investigation, and/or the management. We strongly encourage authors to comply with the CARE guidelines.The manuscript must include a statement detailing that written informed consent for publication was obtained and from whom (e.g. “Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images.”). If the patient has died, consent for publication must be obtained from their next of kin. If the patient described in the case report is a minor or vulnerable, then consent for publication must be obtained from the parent/legal guardian. The completed consent form must be made available to the Editor if requested, and will be treated confidentially.

A downloadable template is available below.

Documents

Case Report (DOCX, 34.66 KB)

Case Reports should not be more than 1,500 words, with approx. 10 references, and 2 figures and/or tables.

Book Review

A downloadable template is available below.
Documents

Book Reviews (DOCX, 18.12 KB)

Brief Report

Brief Reports are short and/or rapid announcements of research results. They must contain data derived from cutting-edge research and be of potential interest to a large proportion of the readership. They are independent, concise reports representing a significant contribution to the field. Such communications should represent complete, original studies and should be arranged in the same way as full-length manuscripts with subheadings.

A downloadable template is available below.

Documents

Brief Report (DOCX, 26.81 KB)

Brief Reports should not be more than 1,500 words, with approx. 10 references, and 2 figures and/or tables.

Other Types

Any manuscripts that do not adhere to any of the other available article types should be submitted under 'Other Types'. Further information should be provided in a cover letter.

Meta-Analysis

Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. We strongly encourage authors to comply with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

A downloadable template is available below.

Documents

Meta-Analysis (DOCX, 26.7 KB)

Contact Information

Should you have any problems with your submission, please contact the editorial office:

Editorial Office 'Digital Biomarkers'
S. Karger AG
P.O. Box
CH-4009 Basel (Switzerland)
Email: editorialoffice_dib@karger.com


Editorial and Journal Policies

General Conditions

Only papers written in English are considered. The articles should be comprehensible to a reader who is fluent in English and should be edited prior to submission to ensure that standard English grammar and usage are observed. Use of a professional language editing service prior to submission can help avoid delays with the review process.

All manuscripts are subject to editorial review.

The presentation of manuscripts should follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Karger Publishers is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Karger journals aim to adhere to the COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines.

All articles in this journal are Open Access and meet the requirements of funding bodies and academic institutions. By default, articles are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license. Other licenses are available on request if required by funding bodies. More information about Creative Commons licensing options is available on the Karger website.

Please contact Karger’s Open Access team at openaccess@karger.com with questions regarding your funding body.

For more information on Open Access, please refer to this page.

The copyright of the article is retained by the authors. The authors grant S. Karger AG, Basel, an exclusive unlimited license to publish the article under a Creative Commons license and identify S. Karger AG as the original publisher. By submitting an article for publication, the authors agree to its publication under the applicable Creative Commons license and to the terms and conditions of the Publisher’s Licensing Agreement.

Karger recommends the use of original images and materials whenever possible. If a submitted manuscript contains third-party copyright material(s), it is the authors’ sole responsibility to obtain permission from the relevant copyright holder for reusing the material(s), including any associated licensing fee. The copyright and usage information needs to be checked carefully to avoid copyright infringement. The author(s) is and will remain personally liable for any copyright infringements.

Most publishers offer a quick and easy way to clear permissions for their content via the built-in website application RightsLink or via https://www.copyright.com/get-permissions/. Another widely used licensing tool is PLSClear. Please check the publishers’ websites for the available options and user instructions.

The authors agree that their name, affiliation with their institution and contact details will be available to third parties after the article has been published. Those third parties may be placed within or outside of the European Economic Area.


Statements


All submitted manuscripts must contain a statements section after the main body of the text, but before the reference list. 


Statement of Ethics

Published research must comply with internationally-accepted standards for research practice and reporting. Manuscripts may be rejected if the editors believe that the research has not been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework, and concerns raised after publication may lead to a correction, retraction, or expression of concern in line with COPE guidelines.


Studies involving human subjects (including research on identifiable human material and data) must have been performed with the approval of an appropriate ethics committee and with appropriate participants’ informed consent in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration.

In the manuscript, authors should specify the name of the ethics committee or other relevant authority who approved the study protocol and provide the reference number where appropriate. If ethics approval was not required, or if the study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee who made that decision). 

For all research involving human subjects, written informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from participants (or their parent/legal guardian  where appropriate  ) and a statement detailing this should appear in the manuscript. For studies involving vulnerable participants or participants at risk of potential coercion, detailed information regarding the steps taken to ensure informed consent must be provided. If consent was not obtained, please specify why and whether this was approved by the ethics committee. 

In line with the ICMJE recommendations on the protection of research participants, authors must avoid providing identifying information unless strictly necessary for the submission and participants’ identifiable attributes must be anonymized in the manuscript and its supplementary files, if any. If identifying information is necessary, authors must confirm that the individual has provided written consent for the use of that information in a publication.

Research involving human embryonic stem cells, embryonic germ cells or induced pluripotent stem cells should comply with the ISSCR 'Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research' or an equivalent set of guidelines or applicable regulations.

Case Reports: Manuscripts reporting a case report must include a statement detailing that written informed consent for publication was obtained and from whom (e.g. “Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images.”). If the patient has died, consent for publication must be obtained from their next of kin. If the patient described in the case report is a minor or vulnerable, then consent for publication must be obtained from the parent/legal guardian. The completed consent form must be made available to the Editor if requested, and will be treated confidentially.

Clinical Trials:  In accordance with the ICMJE recommendations, all clinical trials should be registered in a publicly available registry approved by the WHO or ICMJE (see the list here) and the clinical trial number must be clearly stated in the manuscript. Manuscripts reporting clinical trials must adhere to the relevant reporting guidelines for their study design, such as CONSORT for randomized controlled trials, TREND for non-randomized trials, or other relevant reporting guidelines as detailed on the Equator network website.

Karger follows the WHO definition of clinical trials "A clinical trial is any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes [...] Interventions include but are not restricted to drugs, cells and other biological products, surgical procedures, radiologic procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, process-of-care changes, preventive care, etc. This definition includes Phase I to Phase IV trials.”


Studies involving animals: Experimental research on vertebrates or any regulated invertebrates must have been approved by the authors' Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) or equivalent ethics committee and must follow internationally recognized guidelines such as the ARRIVE guidelines. In the manuscript, authors should specify the name of the ethics committee or other relevant authority who approved the study protocol and provide the reference number where appropriate. 

If ethics approval was not required, or if the study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee who made that decision). Additional information is expected for studies reporting death of a regulated animal as a likely outcome or planned endpoint. Other types of studies including field studies and non-experimental research on animals must comply with local or international guidelines, and where appropriate must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. 

Please note if authors are submitting to a journal with a double blind peer review policy, the Ethics Statement should be anonymized where appropriate.

Conflict of Interest Statement

Karger endorses the ICMJE recommendations on the ‘Disclosure of Financial and Non-Financial Relationships and Activities, and Conflicts of Interest’. Authors are required to disclose any relationship that could reasonably be perceived by a reader as a potential conflict of interest at the time of submission. All forms of support and financial involvement (e.g. employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership and options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, royalties) which took place in the previous three years should be listed, regardless of their potential relevance to the paper. Also the nonfinancial relationships (personal, political, or professional) that may potentially influence the writing of the manuscript should be declaredThe role of the funder in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing of the report; any restrictions regarding the submission of the report for publication should be declared. If the funder had no role in any of the above, this should be clearly stated in the manuscript’s funding section.

Please note if authors are submitting to a journal with a double blind peer review policy, the Conflict of Interest statement should be anonymized where appropriate.

Author Contributions Statement

In the Author Contributions section, a short statement detailing the contributions of each person named as an author should be included. Contributors to the paper who do not fulfill the ICMJE Criteria for Authorship should be credited in the Acknowledgement section. If an author is removed from or added to the listed authors after submission, an explanation and a signed statement of agreement confirming the requested change are required from all the initially listed authors and from the author to be removed or added.

Please note if authors are submitting to a journal with a double blind peer review policy, the Author Contributions statement should be anonymized where appropriate.

Data Availability Statement 

The journal’s data sharing policy strongly encourages authors to make all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely available to editors, reviewers and readers without unnecessary restriction wherever possible. Authors are required to provide a Data Availability Statement in their article that details whether data are available and where they can be found. In cases where research data are not publicly available on legal or ethical grounds, this should be clearly stated in the Data Availability Statement along with any conditions for accessing the data. The decision to publish will not be affected by whether or not authors share their research data.

Examples of Data Availability statements:
· The data that support the findings of this study are openly available in [repository name e.g “figshare”] at http://doi.org/[doi], reference number [reference number] 
· Publicly available datasets were used in this study. These can be found in [repository name e.g “figshare”] at http://doi.org/[doi], reference number [reference number] 
· All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article. Further enquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.
· All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article and its supplementary material files. Further enquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.
· The data that support the findings of this study are not publicly available due to [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC e.g. their containing information that could compromise the privacy of research participants] but are available from [e.g. the corresponding author [author initials] OR Data sharing committee [PROVIDE CONTACT DETAILS including email address] upon reasonable request]
· The data in this study was obtained from [third party source] where [RESTRICTIONS/LICENCE] may apply. Such dataset may be requested from [source contact information].

Please note if authors are submitting to a journal with a double blind peer review policy, the data availability statement should be anonymized where appropriate.

Definition of research data: This policy applies to the research data that would be required to verify the results of research reported in articles published in the journal. Research data include data produced by the authors (“primary data”) and data from other sources that are analysed by authors in their study (“secondary data”). Research data includes any recorded factual material that are used to produce the results in digital and non-digital form. This includes, but is not limited to, tabular data, code, images, audio, documents, video, maps, raw and/or processed data. 
For images, Karger requests that individual/unique features within an image are not modified, and image-processing methods do not alter the original image information ( the use of software and/or enhancement technique must be disclosed in the methods section). Any concerns raised over inappropriate image modification will be investigated in accordance with COPE guidelines.

Policy exceptions: This policy does not require public sharing of quantitative or qualitative data that could identify a research participant unless participants have consented to data release. The policy also does not require public sharing of other sensitive data, such as the locations of endangered species. Alternatives to public sharing of sensitive or personal data include:
Depositing research data in controlled access repositories
Anonymizing or deidentifying data before public sharing
Only sharing metadata about the research data
Stating the procedures for accessing your research data in the article and managing data access requests from other researchers

Embargoes: Embargoes on data sharing are permitted but should be clearly stated in the data availability statement, including the reason for embargo, date of the end of the embargo period and how and where the data can be accessed following the end of the embargo period. Please note that all datasets on which the conclusions of the paper rely must be made available to editors and reviewers if requested to facilitate the review process.

Data repositories: The preferred mechanism for sharing research data is via public data repositories. We encourage authors to select a data repository that issues a persistent identifier, preferably a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), and has established a robust preservation plan to ensure the data is preserved in perpetuity. Additionally, we highly encourage researchers to consider the FAIR Data Principles when depositing data. Authors are encouraged to deposit their research data in a repository that has been widely adopted within their research community, suitable repositories per each area and data type can be searched using the FAIRsharing database tool (https://fairsharing.org/databases/) or via https://repositoryfinder.datacite.org
If no such database is available authors may use a general data repository. Examples of general data repositories include:
· Figshare (www.figshare.com)
· Zenodo (www.zenodo.org)
· Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/)
If authors are submitting an article to a journal with a double blind peer review policy, they should deposit their data in a repository that allows them to temporarily preserve anonymity such as Figshare (“private sharing link”) or Dryad (“private for peer review”).

Data citation: The journal encourages authors to cite any publicly available research data in their reference list. References to datasets (data citations) must include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI). Citations of datasets, when they appear in the reference list, should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite (e.g. author(s), title, publisher (repository name), DOI)  and follow journal style. 

Data licensing: The journal encourages research data to be made available under open licences that permit reuse freely. The journal does not enforce particular licenses for research data, where research data are deposited in third party repositories. The publisher of the journal does not claim copyright for research data.

Reference: Hrynaszkiewicz, I, Simons, N, Hussain, A, Grant, R and Goudie, S. 2020. Developing a Research Data Policy Framework for All Journals and Publishers. Data Science Journal, DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2020-005.

Plagiarism

Plagiarism, whether intentional or not, is not tolerated in Karger’s journals. Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to, copying or reusing text, ideas, images or data from other sources without clear attribution, and goes against the principle of academic publishing. Karger may subject any manuscripts to a plagiarism-detection software ( Crossref Similarity Check, powered by iThenticate) and if the software raises any concerns, there will be a follow-up investigation in line with COPE guidelines. At any stage of peer-review, publication, or post-publication, if plagiarism is detected the manuscript may be rejected, corrected or retracted, as appropriate, and we reserve the right to inform the authors' institutions about any plagiarism detected. We expect that our editors and reviewers will inform the journal about any concerns related to plagiarism.

Peer Review

Peer Review Policy

All Karger journals employ a rigorous peer-review process to confirm the validity and ensure scientific accuracy of published articles. Independent researchers with relevant expertise assess submitted manuscripts to help journal editors determine whether a manuscript should be published in their journal.


Peer Review Type

Digital Biomarkers uses a single-blind peer review system where reviewers know the names of the authors, but the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript.


Peer Review Process

The Editor-in-Chief and the international Editorial Board ensure a thorough and fair peer-review process with the highest scientific publishing standards. The editorial office performs preliminary checks on submitted manuscripts to ensure compliance with submission guidelines, editorial policies and ethical standards. After completion of internal checks, each submission is assessed by the Editor-in-Chief (and/or Managing Editor) who decides whether to proceed with peer review and may assign a suitable handling Editor (Associate Editor, Editorial Board Member or Guest Editor). Handling Editors guide the peer-review process for manuscripts within their areas of expertise with the help of reviewers who are well qualified and up-to-date on the subject matter and/or methodology. All articles, except for Editorials and some Correspondence articles, are externally peer reviewed, typically by at least two individuals with expertise in the manuscript content area and/or research methods, before a final decision is made about acceptance for publication. If an Editor, Editorial Board Member, or employee submits a manuscript, it is assigned to an independent Editor who will handle the peer review, and details of the review process, beyond the anonymized review and decision, are not accessible to the Editor, Editorial Board Member, or employee. All Editors, reviewers and authors shall adhere to Karger’s editorial policies and best practices in line with COPE Core Practices to maintain high standards of peer-review. 


Peer Reviewers

Authors may suggest reviewers, who must have a recent publication record in the area of the submission, must not have published with the authors in recent years, and must not be from the same institution as the authors. Whether or not to consider these reviewers is at the Editor's discretion, and in line with Karger’s Editorial policy. Where possible, institutional email addresses or information which will facilitate verifying the identity of the reviewer should be provided.


Appeals and Complaints

Any appeal on a decision or complaint during peer-review, or post-publication, must be submitted in writing to the corresponding Karger’s editorial office (see “Journal Contact”). All cases will be handled in line with COPE guidelines.

Reproducibility

Availability of materials

The Methods section of the article must contain sufficient information to allow a reader to replicate the study. Karger encourages authors to use protocols.io as an open access repository for their detailed methodology. For protocols registered in protocols.io, please cite this record in your methods section and include the record DOI in the references. Karger supports the inclusion of Research Resource Identifiers in the methods section, for further information please see the Resource Identification Portal. Supplier and catalogue numbers should be included for any chemical and reagents.


Image presentation

Where authors include a representative image of an experimental group or outcome it is expected that no image enhancements or adjustments are applied to that image. Where necessary for clarity of interpretation, for example, image cropping or brightness adjustment, this should be applied to the whole image, be detailed in the Methods section of the article and the original images must be uploaded as supplementary material.


Statistics

Karger recommends following The SAMPL Guidelines when reporting statistical analyses. Sample size must be reported for each study in the methods section tables and Figure legends. Where statistical testing for the significance of an effect is carried out, a dedicated section for statistical methodology must be included in the Methods. This section should provide sufficient information that would allow, with access to the full data set, reproduction of the article's results. The choice of statistical tests and any post-hoc tests must be justified in this section. The threshold for significance, alpha, should be defined here as well as how multiple comparisons are adjusted for, where applicable. When reporting the results of statistical tests it is not sufficient to only report the p-value. For example, for a Student’s t-test, it is necessary to report the degrees of freedom, t-statistic as well as the exact p-value.


Materials Design Analysis Reporting Framework

Karger Publishers endorses the Materials Design Analysis Reporting (MDAR) Framework for minimum reporting standards in the life sciences and encourages authors to consider all aspects of the MDAR Framework relevant to their study when submitting a manuscript. Authors are encouraged to submit a completed MDAR Checklist with their manuscripts.

Misconduct

Karger takes seriously all allegations of potential misconduct and will follow relevant COPE Guidelines. Concerns regarding a published article should be raised to the Research Integrity and Publication Ethics Manager at publication.ethics[at]karger.com. All efforts will be made to resolve concerns raised about a published article without undue delay and an Erratum or Retraction will be issued, where necessary. An Expression of Concern may be published to inform readers of ongoing matters in line with COPE guidance. In cases of suspected research or publication misconduct, it may be necessary for the Editor or Publisher to contact and share submission details with third parties including authors’ institutions and ethics committees in line with COPE Guidelines. Advice may also be sought directly from COPE.

Article Preparation

Formatting

The preferred word processing program for manuscripts is Microsoft Word. Page and line numbering should be activated, and the level of subheadings should be indicated clearly. 


Footnotes should be avoided. When essential, they should be numbered consecutively and appear at the foot of the appropriate page.


Abbreviations (with the exception of those clearly well established in the field) should be explained when they are first used both in the abstract and in the main text.


Units of measurement should be expressed in SI units wherever possible.


Generic names of drugs (first letter: lowercase) should be used whenever possible. Registered trade names (first letter: uppercase) should be marked with the superscript registration symbol ® or ™ when they are first mentioned.


The manuscript text, tables and illustrations must be submitted in separate files.


For further technical specifications, including those regarding tables, figures, and illustrations, please refer to the Karger website.

Manuscript Arrangement

Title Page

The first page should contain a short and concise title plus a running head of no more than 80 characters. Abbreviations should be avoided.


Below the title, list all the authors’ names as outlined in the article sample, which can be downloaded under Article Types. Each listed author must have an affiliation, which comprises the department, university, or organization and its location, city, state/province (if applicable), and country.


Place the full postal address of the corresponding author at the bottom of the first page, including at least one telephone number and e-mail address.


Keywords relevant to the article should be listed below the corresponding author information.

Body

Please refer to the Article Types section of the Guidelines for Authors for information on the relevant article structure, including maximum word counts and downloadable samples.

Online Supplementary Material

Online Supplementary Material may be used to enhance a publication and increase its visibility on the Web. Supplementary files (directly relevant but not essential to the conclusions of the paper) will undergo editorial review and should be submitted in a separate file with the original manuscript and with all subsequent submissions. The Editor(s) reserve(s) the right to limit the scope and length of supplementary material. Supplementary material must meet production quality standards for publication without the need for any modification or editing. For ease of reader access, we strongly recommend that files be less than 10 MB. Authors wishing to associate larger amounts of supplementary material with their article should deposit their data in an appropriate public data repository. Figures must have legends and tables require headings. All files must be named clearly. Acceptable files and formats are Word or PDF files, Excel spreadsheets (if the data cannot be converted properly into a PDF file), and multimedia files (MPEG, AVI, or QuickTime formats). All supplementary material should be referred to in the main text. A DOI number will be assigned to supplementary material, and it will be hosted online at https://karger.figshare.com under a CC BY license.

References

In-Text Citation

References in the text should be identified using Arabic numerals [in square brackets]. 

The reference list should not be alphabetized, but the references should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Material submitted for publication but not yet accepted should be labelled as ‘unpublished’ and may not be included in the reference list. Other pre-published or related materials with a DOI, e.g. preprint manuscripts, datasets, and code, may be included.

Further information and examples can be found in the downloadable article samples in Article Types. If you are using reference management software, we recommend using the Vancouver Referencing Style.


Reference Management Software
The use of EndNote is recommended to facilitate formatting of citations and reference lists. The journal output style can be downloaded from http://endnote.com/downloads/styles.

Author Services

Karger Publishers offer a range of services to assist authors with the preparation of their manuscript, including discounts for language editing services offered by third parties.


More information is available on the Author Resources section of the Karger homepage.


When submitting a manuscript, authors can add their ORCID number to their Karger account to ensure that their paper is accredited to them correctly.


Cost of Publication

Page Charges/Article Processing Charges

Please note that ‘Brief Reports’, 'Book Reviews' and 'Case Reports' will be subject to an Article Processing Charge (APC) of CHF 730.00/ USD 790.00/ EUR 675.00. 

Upon acceptance, manuscripts will be subject to an Article Processing Charge (APC) of CHF 920.00 / USD 990.00 / EUR 850.00. Please note that all fees are subject to change.

Online Supplementary Material

We strongly encourage authors to make all the datasets on which the conclusions of the manuscript are based available. Online supplementary material is hosted for free with a published article. For ease of reader access, we strongly recommend that files be less than 10 MB. Authors wishing to associate larger amounts of supplementary material with their article should deposit their data in an appropriate public data repository.

Illustration Charges

Color illustrations are reproduced free of charge.

Journal Policies

Copyediting and Proofs

Manuscripts accepted for publication by Karger Publishers will undergo basic proofreading to check for obvious spelling and grammar mistakes. If you would prefer a more in-depth language editing service to improve clarity and style, please consult a service provider prior to submission. Please note that the use of a language editing service before submission is not a requirement for publication in the journal and does not guarantee that the manuscript will be considered for peer review or accepted.  

 Karger Publishers’ house style is based on internationally recognized standard manuals, including The Chicago Manual of Style.

An e-mail containing a link to download the PDF proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. The authors should check the PDF document and respond to any questions that have been raised during proofreading within 48 hours.


Alterations made to proofs, other than the correction of errors introduced by the Publisher, are charged to the authors and may require editorial approval.


Please note that the revised proofs are not sent to the authors prior to typesetting and online publication unless there are exceptional circumstances. The article layout will be created according to the Karger standard.

DOI Number

A DOI number will be available as a unique identifier on the title page of each article. DOIs are useful for identifying and citing articles published online without volume or issue information (for more information, see www.doi.org).

Licenses and Copyright

Articles published in Digital Biomarkers are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, unless otherwise agreed with Karger Publishers. When sharing or reusing any article, attribution must be given to the original source, using the statement "The final, published version of this article is available at http://www.karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number]" (e.g., http://www.karger.com/?doi=10.1159/000365070). Reuse for commercial purposes requires permission from the publisher. 


More information is available on the Karger website.


The copyright of the article is retained by the authors. The authors grant S. Karger AG, Basel, an exclusive unlimited license to publish the article under a Creative Commons license and identify S. Karger AG as the original publisher. Submission of a manuscript for publication implies the authors’ consent to publication under the applicable Creative Commons license and the terms and conditions of the Publisher’s Licensing Agreement.

Please note that metadata – essentially, data tags about article information such as authors and keywords that helps make articles discoverable by, for example, search engines – is governed by a separate policy. Refer to the FAQ on our Open Access web pages for details.


Archiving and Self-Archiving

All articles are archived in Portico. Articles may also be archived in PubMed Central if the journal is indexed there. Karger permits authors of Open Access articles to post the Version of Record (VOR) of their articles in Open Access repositories or on other websites. Preprints may be shared without restriction. Re-posted Open Access articles must follow the terms of the relevant Creative Commons license. 

To ensure citations are credited to the Version of Record, Karger encourages authors to link to the published article on www.karger.com and include the following statement: "The Version of Record of this article is available at http://www.karger.com/?doi=[insert DOI number](e.g. http://www.karger.com/?doi=10.1159/000365070)."

Manuscripts to be archived in PubMed Central due to NIH funding requirements will be submitted by Karger on the authors’ behalf, as outlined under Funding Organizations.

Karger policies on Open Access, licensing and self-archiving can also be found at Sherpa Romeo

Funding Organizations

If the authors are affiliated with an organization that has an Open Access agreement with Karger, the authors are prompted during submission to select from a list of these organizations. By choosing one of the listed organizations, eligibility can then be assessed.


NIH-Funded Research
The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy mandates that the Author's Accepted Manuscript must be archived in its digital repository PubMed Central (PMC) within 12 months of the official publication date. As a service to authors, Karger Publishers submits the Version of Record of Open Access NIH-funded papers to PMC upon publication.

Plan S

To facilitate compliance with Coalition S/Plan S Open Access mandates, Karger publishes Plan S-funded Open Access articles with a CC BY license. Some Coalition S funders, such as Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and FWF, designate PMC as the repository in which to archive articles. Where PMC is the designated repository, Karger will deposit the Version of Record on the author’s behalf with the CC BY license. Authors should refer to their funders’ policies for details.  Authors should check their funders’ requirements about how to declare their funding and any associated mandates within their manuscript.

Karger publishes some journals under the Transformative Journals model, compliant with Plan S. Find more information about Transformative Journals on the Karger website.

Other Funding Sources

Karger Publishers also complies with other funders’ requirements for submission to PMC. Authors should inform Karger about their grant providers during submission and include information on their grants in the Funding Sources section of their papers.

More information on funding sources can be found on the Karger website


Errata and Retractions

Karger is committed to maintaining the accuracy and integrity of the scientific record. Retractions will be issued where required in accordance with COPE guidelines. Errors in an article that affect the content of the article, such as figures or results, or the article metadata, such as the author list, will be corrected through the publication of an Erratum. Please note that the corrections of other errors introduced by authors and missed during the final manuscript proofing stage may be declined. Authors should contact us or use the Error Report form to report errors in their articles. Please state journal name, volume, issue and page numbers, the DOI number if the article has not yet been printed, as well as article title and the nature of the error.


Submission

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online via the Digital Biomarkers submission and peer review system by the manuscript’s corresponding author. The corresponding (submitting) author will automatically be the contact person for the manuscript throughout the publication process. 

The corresponding (submitting) author is solely responsible for managing all communication between the journal and all co-authors and acts on behalf of all listed authors. This ensures that all correspondence reaches a unique contact and thereby secures swift communication in particular throughout the submission, peer review and production process. Articles can be published with more than one corresponding author (usually limited to three), but only one (the submitting author) can be accommodated during the submission, peer review and production process.

The corresponding (submitting) author’s specific responsibilities include:

Ensuring all the listed authors have approved the manuscript submission to the journal and agreed to all of the content including the author list
Handling the revision(s) and re-submission(s) of the manuscript until acceptance
Upon acceptance, ensuring that all listed authors agree to the license agreement, including the Submission Declaration
After acceptance, manuscript proof reading and approving the final proof
Arranging for payment of Page Charges/Article Processing Charges where required. The affiliation of the corresponding (submitting) author will be used to determine eligibility for discounted or waived charges including discounted or waived APCs under read and publish/offsetting/OA agreements
Act as the point of contact for queries about the published article. It is their responsibility to inform all co-authors of any matters arising in relation to the published article including questions relating to publication ethics, availability of data, materials, etc.


Please note that the author names entered into the manuscript submission and peer review system should be identical to the information presented on the title page of the manuscript, including the sequence of authorship. The author names submitted should reflect the official publication names. It is the corresponding (submitting) author’s responsibility to ensure the accuracy of all content in the proof, including the names of co-authors, addresses and affiliations.

Before submission, please read the Guidelines for Authors for specific requirements for manuscript preparation.

A brief cover letter outlining how your study contributes to the current scientific literature and how it fits the aims and scope of the Journal should be provided. If your submission is part of a special issue of the journal, please refer to the specific name of the special issue in your cover letter and specify who invited the submission where appropriate.

Submission Declaration

The submitting author will submit, on behalf of all authors, their manuscript for potential publication after full peer-review. All co-authors will confirm that the submitting author has authority to act on their behalf via the verification link sent out to all authors upon completion of the submission. Please refer to the Submission Declaration PDF for details.
Documents

Submission Declaration (PDF, 65.62 KB)


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